Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is a narrowing of small blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart. By doing coronary angiography we directly visualize any narrowing of these blood vessels that will help in diagonosing CAD. This can be done by both radial (through hand) or femoral (through groin) routes. However, radial approach is being more commonly used today as it is convenient for the patient and lessens hospital stay.
After we have diagnosed the disease through angiography, the blockage site can be opened by putting the stent at the site of narrowing thereafter balloon dilatation. Results are excellent. This can be done by both radial and femoral approaches.
A) Primary Angioplasty
A life saving strategy which is done, when patient gets heart attack and if he arrives at the hospital well in time preferably in first 3 hours of heart attack, it significantly increases survival and prevents heart rate related complications. It underlines the importance of time as “Time is Muscle”.
B) Elective Angioplasty
It is done when patient presents with chest pain of longer duration and is relatively stable (Chronic Stable Angina). We can fix the problem with multiple stents in same sitting or it can be done in stages (subjective to patient’s clinical parameters).
Refers to deviation of heart rate from normal which is between 60-100 rate per minute.
Refers to our heart rate when it goes less than 60 per minute. It can cause giddiness, fatigue, breathlessness and many times patient may suddenly collapse.
Refers to our heart rate when it goes more than 100 per minute. This may be normal heart rate or abnormal heart rate. The main symptom we feel is palpitations (heart is beating fast). This may also cause giddiness and collapse.
As we do angiography to look for blood vessels supplying our heart, EP study permits us to diagnose problem related to electrical system of heart. It can diagnose causes of slow as well fast heart rate. It decides whether the patient requires pacemaker (in event of slow heart rate) or devices and ablation (in event of fast heart rate).
Ablation means removal of extra-electrical circuit in the heart electrical system that is causing fast heart rate. It is done by delivering Radio Frequency (RF) energy. It is safe and excellent method to get rid of the problem and eventually it avoids need of any medication for long term.